Translation notes 04/23/200004/23/2000 ------------------------------------------------------------ Mistranslations Hut - Barrack Camp - Zone (or camp zone; camp had several zones) Shipmates - Red sailors (Bynovsky) Joyfully - zloradno (Bynovsky about temperature) Imprecise Translation Felt boots - ???  Valenki HQ - Headquarter's barrack hut - barrack (the only word used by author) BUR - "the camp's stone punishment cell" Kolkhoz - Collective farm or agricultural cooperative. Collectivization was govenment controlled and enforced in the most brutal way.  Actuall it was mass confiscation of property and land which was promised to peasants and acually given to them in the beginning of revolution in order to gain their support.  Along with that the mere possibility of opposition was prevented by exterminating all more or less well-to-do peasants and their families. Literal Translation Godfather - In Russian "baptizing father" or "baptizer" - both are in use. Kum is the old word rarely used in its original meaning, i.e.  "godfather".  Modern usage is rather a designation of an extremely boring and annoying distant relative, a collector and spreader of family gossip (which might have given this name - "kum" by association to the office busy with the same sort of activity). Not Translated and Explained Zek - ZaKluchenny (Russ) - Literally "incarcerated", never a "prisoner"!  - prisoner is a soldier captured in war. Taiga - North Asia jungle ("the law of taiga" - "it's jungle out there") Kopeck - Equivalent to 1 cent in relaive denomination.  When first issued (lond ago it beared the image of Archangel Michael killing the dragon with the spire.  "Spire" is "Kopiye" in Russian, which gave the name to the coin "Kopieyka" (not "Kopeck"). Kulak - Fist (literal) meaning "strong" or "hard".  This was not only "applied to all reasonably well-to-do peasants which were destined, by Stalin's order, to be 'liquidated as a class'", but to anybody even marginally above the level of poverty or personally unpleasant to new life activists.  Ideological justification of their extermination was that they use "hired labor" and as such a an "exploitaitors" who can be "justifiably" suppressed by those whom they were exploiting in the past.  They were seen as an obstacle and competition to agriculture collectivisation.  Any productive peasant was a potential victim.  He was either killed or jailed, his family was sent to Siberia exile with less than tiny chances to survive, his property was robbed. * In the 1930s, this term was applied to all reasonably well-to-do peasants who were destined, by Stalin's order, to be "liquidated as a class."  Article 58 of the Criminal Code - Treason [of motherland] more usable "article 58" or "58" Belomor Canal - "Canal system linking Baltic and White Seas, built, at great human cost, by convict labor in 193134."  Name Belomor is derived as abbreviation of "Beloe More", which literally means White Sea.  ^^^^ ^^^ "Human cost" was over 250,000 lives.  Never serously used, presently almost abandoned. Oprichniki - "Members of a special armed force established by Ivan the Terrible, notorious for their indiscriminate ruthlessness."  This force - "oprichnina" was Ivans personal guards whom he used in his power struggle against nobility.  This destination gave the name "oprich" meant "against" in the old Russian (in modern language this word is not used any longer). The bloody rampage started at the top but pretty soon progressed down and the whole country was reigned by terror which gave the title "Terrible" to the tsar. Most notorious modern counterparts are Hitler's Gestapo and Stalin's NKVD (Peoples Comissariat of Internal Affairs). "Prisoners were forbidden to use the term 'comrade.'" - "Comrade" is an official and most used form of addressing; "citizen" was intended to stress **** Mistakes in Translation The Tartar's hairless, crumpled face was blank.  He turned around to look for victims,.. The Tartar's hairless, crumpled face was blank.  He turned around to look for the second rying toward the door to wait for the Tartar outside. ^^^ "What for, citizen warder?"  * Shukhov asked, with more - But your life can depend on those two hundred grams. Two hundred grams rule the life. - ...  was he giving them both to Tsezar? ~~~~~~~ Stakhanovite - "A type of worker who voluntarily increased his productivity for the greater glory of communism.  The term came into use in the 1930s."  After Aleksei Stakhanov - sample highly productive worker. However Russian original uses the word "Stakanovite", not the correct "Stakhanovite" (letter "h" is omitted). Kildigs speaks a bit distorted Russian, but this distortion is a special one - "stakan" means "glass" in Russian and is closely associated with drinking (mainly vodka). This combination of meanings suggest a light mockery - addressing Shukhov as a "highly productive" drinker (traditional stereotype for Russian) by a sober Latvian Kildigs.  Shukhov and Kildigs were on friendly terms, but through the story they mock lightly at each other just for fun. Engeneering works - auto-repair works "Fuck you, Limpy, you bastard,"